THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON PUPIL’S COMMUNICATION SKILLS – Complete Project Material


THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON PUPIL’S COMMUNICATION SKILLS

ABSTRACT

The study examined the influence of information and communication technology on pupil’s communication skill. A detailed literature was reviewed in relevant subheadings. The descriptive research design was used in order to assess the opinions of the respondents using the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of 100 (One Hundred) respondents (made up of 50 males and 50 females) were selected and used in this study as the sample of the study which represented the entire population of the study. Three research questions were raised in the study and were analyzed together with the bio-data of the respondents using the simple percentage frequency counts, while three null hypotheses were formulated and tested using both the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and the independent t-test statistical tools at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the data analyses, the following results emerged: there is a significant relationship between ict tools available for teaching and learning and speaking skills in primary school, there is a significant difference between teacher and the use of ict tools in teaching and learning, there is a significant different between implementation and challenges facing ict facilities in primary school, it is summarized that there is a positive relationship between information and communication technology (ict) and children’s communication skills. Based on the conclusions of this study, the researcher recommended certain number of measures to the parents, government, teachers and the society that will be useful in promoting the communication skills that will breed a healthy future leader of the Nation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

Teaching is becoming one of the most challenging professions in our society today where knowledge is expanding so rapidly that modern technologies demand the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (Bakkabulindi, 2007). ICT has become within a short time one of the basic building blocks of a modern society. Many countries now regard understanding ICT and mastering its basic concepts as part of the core of education (UNESCO, 2002). In Nigeria, Government has established a fully-fledged Ministry of Communication Technology and National Information Technology Development Agency to stress the importance of ICT in promoting economic growth and development.

Observers and proponents of ICT suggest that our use of increasingly sophisticated and enabling technologies will continue, to the extent that technological literacy will become a basic functional requirement for our work, social and personal lives. The National Council for Curriculum and Assessment, UK (2004), notes that as the pace of technological development continues to grow, children in our primary schools today will live in a world where ICT will be increasingly embedded in their daily lives.

The use of computers in education is not a new phenomenon. In the 1970’s, its promoters claimed that it would transform and save education (Lockard & Abrams, 1994). The late 1980’s saw a growing shift towards computer integration which emphasized the curriculum and not the tool. Its proponents felt that students would learn new skills as they needed them in order to make the computer work for them. The computer could now be viewed more as a partner as opposed to a competitor and could be treated in a more natural manner (Lockard & Abrams, 1994). The 1990’s saw a heightened focus on increasing the use of computer technology in the classroom, and not just by the evangelists. Growing attention and pressure to implement technology in education is coming from many directions, including parents and the business sector, not just departments of education (Pelgrum, 2001). One of the most significant features of the technological or digital era of much relevance to education is the Internet. Hargittai (2009) defines the Internet technically and functionally as a worldwide network of computers and people interacting together.

Technology can stimulate the playfulness of pupils and immerse them in a variety of scenarios. Technology gives pupils a chance to engage in self-directed actions, opportunities for self-paced interactions, privacy, and a safe environment in which errors get corrected and specific feedback is given (Pelgrum, 2001). Feedback by a machine offers additional value by its ability to track mistakes and link the pupils immediately to exercises that focus on specific errors. Studies emerging show the importance of qualitative feedback in software.

The usage of headphones in the lab makes the pupils to have interest over the subject and induces them to repeat again and again instead of feeling boredom (Musisi, Nansozi, Muwanga, and Nakanyike, 2003) Softwares are available to develop speaking skills in pupils. By incorporating suitable software through computers the pupils will play it again and again with their own interest and try to improve their speaking skills, which are most essential in this modernized ICT world.

Speech recognition software also helps improving the pupils speaking skills, this can convert spoken words to machine-readable input. The device recognizes the accuracy of what was read and then provides a positive reinforcement like “You sound great!” or gives the user an opportunity to try again, in this way the pupil can figure if he is reading well or not. As the user’s speaking skill improves, the technology reads less material so that the pupil reads more. This software also evaluates and provides scores of grammar, pronunciation, comprehension and provided with the correct forms, for examples if a pupil mispronounces a word, the learning tool can immediately spot it and help correct it. This device can be a very useful device for distance learners because they don’t have a teacher who corrects their speech and this device can help improving their speaking skills.

Internet is a commonly acknowledged term and widely used by people throughout the world. Amin (2005) opined that pupils now use Internet in the class to learn speaking skills and online teaching inside the classroom seems to be interesting and makes the pupil to find out the suitable materials for them, that is, pupils are instructed to do the grammar exercises which are available online. Through Internet we can collect data from various source for any instruction to improve speaking skill with the use of software programme Skype, MSM Messenger, Google talk (used to have conferences on line) and other applications where pupils can connect with friends, other pupils; teacher and even native speakers. These ways of learning have been observed to improve oral proficiency in pupils and make up for the lack of native speakers in the areas where pupils live and what is more, on line conferences also enhance intercultural awareness, motivation and raise the level of interaction.

Barbra, (2004) opined that pupils can find a lot of learning materials over the internet, for example, audio, video, radio and TV shows, games, voice recordings, quizzes, podcasts and so on, in this way, they become exposed to great amount of target language and this help them develop their speaking skills.

Jung, (2005) opined that podcasts can be uploaded or downloaded on the internet, this audio help the pupils familiarize with the target language and teachers can use them as useful audio material that can be used in class for activities like discussions, besides, in the web, there are even particular podcasts that are for English as Second Language (ESL),learners and these can include pronunciation for particular needs of pupils. Podcast undoubtedly help pupils in speaking skills. Pod casting is the integration of audio files where we can feed our own materials and ply it inside and outside of the classroom. Pupils can use i-pods to hear their favorite music files. In the same way they have their education in the form of entertainment. Sekaran, (2003) opined that Podcasting allows pupils to use their tech-based entertainment systems for educational purposes. With it we are able to move away from the traditional face-to-face training without losing the pupil-to-trainer relationship that is so effective in any learning process. Podcasts enables pupils and teachers to share information with anyone at any time. An absent pupil can download the podcast of recorded lesson and is able to access the missed lectures. They could also access lectures of experts which may not otherwise be available because of geographical distance and other reasons.

In this study ICT is viewed as set of tools that can be used to process, avail and access, information and communication services or products. The services and products may include hardware and software; Internet, telephones/mobile phones, telefax, type writer, calculators, radios, televisions, hydraulic machines used in industries among others. Bakkabulindi (2002) observes that ICTs are of two major types namely; ICTs for converting or processing data into information such as adding machines, calculators, typewriters and computers; and ICTs for communication of data and or information from one place to another: These include telegraph, telephone, telefax and computer networks. These gadgets offer the possibility for an interactive approach. Interaction refers to the relation between the user and these gadgets. ICT further refers to the availability, accessibility and user-ability of these gadgets. Availability implies the presence of these ICT resources, accessibility means the degree to which these ICT resources are easily accessible by as many people as possible .User-ability refers to the capability of the students and teachers to use these resources to achieve specified goals.

According to Ajayi (2008), the effective utilization of ICT in teaching and learning depends on the availability of these facilities and teachers competence in using them. Observation has shown that there are few functional ICT facilities in most public primary schools in Lagos state and this hampers the teacher ability to use them for teaching and learning. Also lack of adequate computer literate teachers, irregular power supply and inadequate funding are another set of obstacle militating against effective utilization of ICT facilities in teaching and learning of communication skills in Yobe state. Therefore there is need to address such problems by providing adequate ICT facilities and training needs of the teachers to effectively utilize it in teaching and learning process.

For the teachers and pupils to use and develop ICT materials that facilitate teaching and learning of communication skills, they should be in position to demonstrate high cognitive flexibility (Spiro, Feltovich, Jacobson, & Coulson, 2005). This puts emphasis on transfer of learning. Transfer of learning refers to the extent to which performance in one situation such as multimedia lesson is reflected in another situation such as working on the job or in a subsequent lesson (Allessi & Trollip, 2006). Therefore teaching is often a precursor to apply or use that knowledge in the real world for pupils in the classrooms.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Pupils’ learning remains central in any academic achievement debate. ICTs provide a window of opportunity for educational institutions and other organizations to harness and use technology to complement and support the teaching and learning process. However, despite the enormous advocacy of ICT as aiding teaching and learning, investment and donation of ICT equipment to primary schools still faces the challenge of how to transform pupils’ learning process to provide pupils with the skills to function effectively in this dynamic, information rich, and continuously changing environment.

The cause of concern is that unless this problem is addressed, investment in the development of ICT in the primary school is going to be put to waste and improvement in the quality of teaching and learning is going to be sluggish. This may make the primary school fail to achieve its mission and to produce school leavers who are ready for the world of work which is increasingly reliant on ICT aided generation and dissemination of knowledge. In view of this discrepancy, there is need to examine the particular effects of availability, accessibility and user-ability of ICT resources on pupils’ speaking skills.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the Influence of Information and Communication Technology on Pupils’ Communication Skills in Badagry Local Government.

Specifically, the study aimed at the following:

1. To investigate the level of availability of ICT tools in teaching and learning of speaking skills in primary schools.

2. To investigate the level of use of ICT tools in teaching and learning speaking skills.

3. To examine the challenges facing the implementation of ICT facilities in primary school in Badagry Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

Answers were sought to the following research questions

1. To what extent is ICT tools available for teaching and learning of speaking skills in primary schools?

2. To what extent are the teachers and pupils in primary school use ICT tools in teaching and learning speaking skills?

3. What are the challenges facing the implementation of ICT facilities in primary school in Badagry Local Government Area?

1.4 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested:

Ho 1. There is no significant difference between ICT tools available for teaching and learning and speaking skills in primary schools.

Ho 2. There is no significant relationship between teachers and pupils in primary school and the use of ICT tools in teaching and learning.

Ho 3. There are no significant difference between implementation and challenges facing ICT facilities in primary school in Badagry Local Government Area?

1.5 Significance of Study

The way we utilize ICT informed by the research findings will be of vital importance to high qualitycommunication skills for our pupils. The Internet can be used to create learning environments where pupils are allowed to explain and defend their thinking, opinions and decisions in order to cultivate critical thinking and meta-cognition.

This study is of great benefit, as it will help in looking at the performance nature of pupils in communication skill classroom. The research work will establish the relationship betweenEnglish teacher’s appropriate use of ICT tools and pupils’ performance. Without mincing words, the research will also point out tested and trusted measures for better performance. Without doubt, the result of this research will also be of immense benefit for education policy and the makers, government. The research will enable the government to increase the allocation for school facilities especially ICT gadgets for schools, so that teachers can have enough ICT facilities for the teaching and learning processes.

1.6 Delimitation

This study is designed to evaluate the Influence of Information and Communication Technology on Pupils’ Communication Skills in Badagry Local Government in Lagos State. Both primary and secondary sources of data are used in the study which can cover 5 primary schools in Education. For this reason, generalization of the findings may not be possible.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Communication skill: is the ability to convey information to another effectively and efficiently

Speaking Skill: is the ability to convey information to another effectively and efficiently

Tools: These are materials used in teaching and learning processes

Integration: This is the act of making use of two variables.

ICT knowledge: This is the ability to apply the knowledge in the Information and communication technology field.

Hardware: These are the physical equipment in the computer system.


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