1.1 Background to the Study

The blacksmithing industry is one of the economic
activities that existed in Kamuru from 1920 to present. Therefore, the
background of the study of the period 1960-2000, is to attempt doing justice to
the topic of this research by analyzing the relationship between the
blacksmiths and farmers in Kamuru District of Zangon Kataf local government
area. The importance of studying the topic of this discuss is to help future
researchers to understand the importance of the interrelationship between the
famers and the blacksmiths on the basis of economic dependence on each other,
during this period of study, which is specify above.  

Blacksmithing is one of the earliest vocational
technological and economic activities on earth, and as a result most of the
economic activities of mankind especially agriculture depended heavily on it.
For this reason, the economic importance of the profession cannot be over
emphasized. For instance, the butcher cannot conduct his activities without
depending on the blacksmiths. In the same vein, the farmers, local barbers, the
wood cutters, the cloth-dyers, and the host of others depended on them for
their working tools.

At the rise of African civilization the essential
tools to survival were found through the use of wood and stone. These tools
proved to work well enough for hunting, gathering, and farming, when man began
to grow plants for food by the used of agricultural technics. But as time
changes, mankind evolved, and it became necessary to find more efficient tools.
With the discovery of iron, men began to produce more complex and sophisticate
iron tools like knives, for domestic used, arrows, spares, axes, etc. for
hunting, and were as well used in the battle fields for the act of war.

The first chapter of this research gives the general
overview of the introduction of various key points of what the chapters of this
research is all about? Due to this fact, it is necessary to use all the main
sources that will imply the quality of the research, in conducting a thorough
research that will authenticate this very important information that is needed
for the purpose of this research project.

However, the second chapter focuses on the brief
history of the blacksmith, the geographical location of Kamuru District, the
people and peopling of Kamuru District, the establishment of the Kamuru
District, the economic and social history of 
Ikululand and traditional activities, and conclusion. The research will
claim all the sources the blacksmithing and farmers agriculture relationship in
Kamuru District as the significance of the study of research.

The chapter three will lay emphasis on the development
of iron tools, socio-cultural activities of the blacksmith and the relationship
between blacksmiths and farmers the establishment of the railway line and the
growth of blacksmithing in addition to the challenges fact by the blacksmith

Consequent upon this, the chapter four of this project
would look at the general contribution and development of the blacksmith to
agricultural production in Kamuru District, smiting as a small scale enterprise
nature of production, market and distribution of farm products and role of
blacksmith industries in agricultural development and conclusion.

The chapter five forms the summary and conclusion and
gives the bibliography. The reason that necessitated the research on this
project topic, is to enable the society to acquire more knowledge through the
study of this research and in order to add value to scholarship, through the
contributions and ideas of the blacksmiths, the research will help the society
in understanding their perception and views about the black smiting industry,
via the use of this reliable source, a written document.1

Furthermore, the farmers equally depended on the
blacksmithing industries in other obtained certain instrument for their daily
domestic activities for instance, the blacksmith produced their cooking utensil
and other ornament, while the farmers also produced food crops, which are
sometimes used as exchange for service render to the farmers by the blacksmith.
This study however, is very significance because it will further enhance the
relationship between farmers and the 
blacksmiths in  Kamuru community,
the entire Kamuru district and it will as well serve as a guide for other people
who will later conduct research in the study of the blacksmiths industries in
Zangon Kataf local government area, and Southern Kaduna at large. This is
because the afore-mention people above share common cultural heritage, and also
share similar experience in their interrelationship, which is the major focus
of this project research, the study of the blacksmithing industries in Kamuru.

Statement of the Problem

The blacksmithing industries have been relegated and
is becoming obsolete, due to the inventions of modern science and technology,
prior to the coming of Europeans into the African continent, and the British
occupation of the Nigerian area. The imperialist capitalist ideologies that
succeeded in making African locally made products inferior to their western
counterparts, had been gradually taken the goods produced by the local
blacksmiths of the Nigerian area out of the market, due to the fancy nature of
the capitalist goods, which the goods produced by the local blacksmiths is not
package in that dimension. For example, the replacement of the locally made
hoes with tractors, local knives with fancy ones, local bows and arrows, with
guns and machine guns, the replacement of other local ointments objects, with
those of the capitalist, had exacerbated the backwardness faced by the
blacksmithing industries in the Nigerian area prior to the coming of the
western colonial administration, due to the inability of the Nigerian
traditional rulers to established a system that encourages the used of iron and
their in abilities to put these blacksmiths under pressure, to development in
the Nigerian area, and most especially in this area of discuss Kamuru District,
just like Hitler curiosity during the world war II that forces the German
engineers, to invent a car that could be used in the deserts, without water,
which led to the invention of Beetle. 2

Aim and Objectives

The aim of this project is to study the relationship between
blacksmiths and farmers in Kamuru District of Zangon Kataf Local Government
Area. Due to the necessity, and the urgent need of written materials by student
of tertiary institutions, who always end becoming handicap, whenever an attempt
is made to make  such a topic like  this, as an area of discuss in any research
that talk about the people socio-cultural heritage. It also becomes necessary,
because the blacksmithing profession, is my family hereditary business, which
also gave me more inside about the existing relationship between the
blacksmiths and the farmers in that region. 3

The broad objective include the followings:

provide a brief history of the blacksmithing industry in Kamuru district.

discuss the development of agricultural activities in Kamuru.

aim is to study the development of the blacksmith industries.

history of Ikululand.

contribution of blacksmith in agricultural development in Kamuru district.

Significance and Justification of the Study

The significance of this research is to help student
and the entire people of the afore-mention area of the study, to have advanced
knowledge of the developmental impact of western education in the area, from
1960-2000. Having done this, the research has been conducted in such a manner
that the historical background of the study was traced back to the imperialist
capitalist effort to cripple existing African industries, which the blacksmith
is not an exception.

This information’s were gotten from books, archival
materials and oral interviews, which to the best of my knowledge are true, and
should therefore be regarded as reliable sources of information about the
development of blacksmithing industry in Kamuru District, and  the co-existing interrelationship between the
farmers and the blacksmiths of the area. This information’s should be used in
the libraries and other institutions of learning for reference purposes.
Moreover, the study therefore is expected to enrich the already existing
literature that will be used academically and practically by teachers,
students, government and other organizations who had keen interest on the
development of blacksmiths industries in Kamuru District area.

However, it is expected to promote understanding and
respect for the institution and practices in the district area, there is
no  doubt that the research is significant,
and will still remain significant, because the blacksmithing industry had
created a lot of impact, and will continue to create more in the area. 4

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This work will focus on the agricultural development
in Zangon Kataf local Government area of Kaduna State, Specifically from 1960 –
2000 which cover the period of 40 years what influence the year 1960 marked the
beginning of the commercial agriculture in Kamuru District. While terminating
period is year 2000 which saw the advancement in the field of agriculture
especially cash crop production where virtually the farmers engaged in it and
also served as sources of income and revenue generation. 5


In this manner, the research attempt different
methods, to ensure that this research is carried out in accordance to the norms
and ethics of universal academic standard, by this the reader can adequately
assess or evaluate the adequacy of the research, and to help other researchers
to make reference to the study or adopt a different pattern for better
development covers primary sources, secondary, and tertiary sources. And
various thesis and dissertation were used in generating the dates.

However, the sources or materials that are used were
gotten from Arewa House history departmental library, paper presentations, and
oral interviews. All this historical source were very relevant information’s in
conducting this research. The researcher makes conscious and pragmatic efforts
to avoid societal influence on this dissertation, as he also tried to avoid any
distortion, misinterpretation of evidence before him in explaining the subject
matter the covering law of divine providence and dialectical materialism, as
well as the behavioural approaches.

Above all, the researches corroborate his evidence or
sources and ensured their authenticity before he uses them in reconstructing
the history of blacksmithing and agricultural activities in Kamuru district.

Literature Review

The first book that consulted was by the Joseph N.
Ukwedeh he who wrote about the blacksmithing activities in Nigeria. To him the
blacksmith were mainly concerned with the construction of iron smelting tools
like big hoes small knives, axes, cutlasses. However, he did not discussed the
relationship between the blacksmiths and farmers. 7

Basely W. in his book published in 1978-1979 discussed
the economic importance of the blacksmithing industries to agricultural
development of the area, he talk about the contributions of the blacksmith to
cotton farming, groundnut farming etc. He also talk about the textile tools
produced by the blacksmith, for the indigenous textiles industries, who made
used of the available cotton produced, to provide the populace a form of
clothing, which also serve as a boost to socio-economic activities. This also
boost the tie and die industries. He also stated that iron implements such as
cutlasses, hoes, knifes, were constructed by the blacksmiths, which aids
developments. 8 

According  to
the P.J. Jagger, the contributions of the blacksmith  to the agricultural economic development of
Nigeria can never be over-emphasize, due to ability to produce the necessary
implement needed for agricultural production purposes such as, big hoes, small
hoes, cutlasses, etc. He also talked about agricultural development. The paper
presentation didn’t say much about the relationship between farmers and
blacksmiths. Rather, he talk about the implements produced by the blacksmiths
such as weapons, iron smelting, nails, and changing technology of blacksmithing
activities, in Nigeria area. A study in social change in Kano, blacksmiths
traditionally, he talk about the contributions of blacksmith in agricultural
development. 9

I.A Akinjogbin 1980. His book made mention few
blacksmithing tools like, hammer, pinches, hooks, chisels, etc. But mention
only few of some of the most relevance materials uses for blacksmithing
activities. However, most of the important elements and materials constructed
included, iron weapons, cutlasses, knives nails and other agriculture implements.
In addition to this blacksmithing, really encouraged the agricultural
activities such as food and cash crops production, such as onion, soya beans,
groundnut, and millets guinea corn. 10


1.   8

Ukwedeh, 2012, Book Published Vol. 6. Seminar Series.

Bello, University Press Limited, Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. Vol. 6, 1978-1979.

Economic History of Hausa Capital Zaria In The 18th and 19th

Andah, A. Ikechukwu Okpoko 2012 published the book.

Akinjogbin (Segun Osoba ISBN 978-136-019-4.

 First Published in 1980 by University of the
Press Ltd. ILE IFE, Nigeria.

Akobubdu Printed by ODU’A Printing Company Ibadan.

 Professor I.A. Akinjogbin General Editor
Department of History University of IFE ILE IFE.

10.  P.J. Jaggar Paper Presentation the Kano Blacksmiths-A
Study in Social Change. Paper Presentations.

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