Evaluation Of The Contributions Of The National Council For Arts And Culture To Natioal Development – Complete project material


The main objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution of
National Council for Arts and Culture (NCAC) to National
Development. Since its inception in 1975, the extent to which the
council has achieved its stated objectives has not been determined.
A comparison of reports in the arts and cultural sector reveals an
increasing need for information by way of statistics, inventories,
evaluation among others to assess and monitor the achievement of
the planned objectives of the sector. A descriptive survey method
was adopted for this research. The population consisted of all NCAC
staff at the headquarters in Abuja and ten zonal offices in the country.
Cluster sampling technique was used in the selection of the
population. The selection of the respondents was based on the
status of the respondents; they include directors, zonal head, heads
of department and units. A total of 122 respondents were sampled
for the study. Two research instruments (questionnaire and interview)
were adopted for the study. A five-point version of the likert scale
was used for the responses. These are “strongly agree” (SA) “agree”
(A), “neutral” (N) “disagree” (DA) and “strongly disagree” (SD).In
analyzing the data, a mean score was selected as the dividing point
between acceptable and unacceptable responses. The major findings
showed that: the right qualities of staff were employed by the council
to run the affairs of the organization and the objectives of the cultural
policy as stated by the NCAC are adequate and relevant to the
development of the country. The council has been harnessing the
various resources from different parts of the country as a way of
contributing to the development of the national culture, unity, selfreliance
and self-sufficiency. The council contributed to the promotion
of research canters, craft canters, inventories of technology, cultural
directories, festivals, traditional sports and literature. The council
encourages viable industries in Nigerian traditional medicine, fashion,
food, architecture and entertainment. As the national secretariat of
other cultural agencies in the country, the Council has been able to
harness the various resources from different parts of the country in
contributing to the development of national culture, unity and self –
reliance through the establishment and promotion of national cultural
research centers, inventories of technology, national festivals and
viable industries in Nigeria




Title Page… … … … … … … … … i
Declaration… … … … … … … … … iii
Certification… … … … … … … … … iv
Dedication… … … … … … … … … v
Acknowledgements… … … … … … … … vi
Abstract… … … … … … … … … … vii
List of Tables… … … … … … … … ….. ix
List of Figures… … … … … … … … … x
List of Plates… … … … … … … … … xi
List of Appendices … … … … … … … … xiii
Operational Definition of Terms /Abbreviations … … … xiv
Table of Contents… … … … … … … … xvi
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background Information… … … … … … 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study… … … … … .. 6
1.3 Statement of the Problem… … … … … … 7
1.4 Research Questions… … … … … … … 8
1.5 Justification of the Study… … … … … … 9
1.6 Basic Assumptions… … … … … … … 10
1.7 Scope / Delimitations of the Study… … … … 10
Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1 Introduction… … … … … … … … 12
2.2 Theoretical Frame Work… …. … ….. …. …. 13
2.3 Concept of Art and Arts… … … … … … 14
2.4 Arts and Culture… … … … … … … 16
2.5 National Cultural Policy… … … … … …. 17
2.6 National Council for Arts and Culture … … … 22
2.7 The Concept of “Culture”… … … … … ….. 36
2.8 The Notion of National Development… … …. …. 53
2.9 National Festival of Arts and Culture (NAFEST)… … 56
2.10 The Arts and National Development… … … … 63
2.11 Previous Related Studies… … … … … … ….. 75
2.12 Summary …. … … …. … … …. … 78
Chapter Three: Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Introduction… … … … … … … … 82
3.2 Research Design… … … … … … … 82
3.3 Research Population…… … … … … … 83
3.4 The Sample and Sampling Technique… … … … 83
3.5 Instrumentation… … … … … … … 84
3.6 Pilot Study… … … … … … … … 85
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instrument… … … … 86
3.8 Administration and Research Instruments… … … 87
3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis… … … … … 87
3.10 Summary… … … … … … … … 88
Chapter Four: Data Analysis
4.1 Introduction… … … … … … … … 89
4.2 Findings… … … … … … … … … … … .. 89
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Discussion/Conclusion… … … … … … … …. 95
5.2 Recommendation… … … … … … … … … .. 97
5.3 Bibliography … … … … … … … … … … 99



1.1 Background Information
The culture trends in Nigeria since the 1970s witnessed an
increasing awareness on the part of our political authorities to assert our
cultural identity as a means of bringing about positive changes in our
national out-look, as well as establishing greater confidence in our national
values and aspirations. A close examination of governmental activities by
Bello (1990) and Anka (1991) reveals a conscious effort on the part of the
then Military Government to use culture as an instrument for promoting
national unity and integration.
Apart from embarking on the policy of national reconstruction and
rehabilitation, the government went further to provide the much needed
institutional and administrative arrangement for the formulation and
implementation of our cultural policy. To this end, a Cultural Division which
later became the Department of Culture was created in 1972 within the
main Ministry while the National Council for Arts and culture (NCAC) was
established in 1975 as an autonomous parastatal (Ashiwaju, 1990).
Cultural trends in the 70s will however remain incomplete without
mentioning Nigeria’s hosting, of the second World Black and African
Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC). Apart from the tremendous cultural
awareness, and relative upsurge in cultural expenditure, which the festival
generated, Festac ‘77 left behind two important legacies that have
contributed in no small measure towards the promotion and development
of Nigerian and African culture thus; (1) The Centre for Black and African
Arts and Civilizations(CBAAC); (2.) The National Theatre Complex which
acts as the custodian of all the relics of Festac. The National Council for
Arts and culture was established by the NCAC Decree no. 3 of 1975 as the
body for national coordination of cultural and artistic promotion and
development in Nigeria. The Decree establishes a National Council for Arts
and Culture and vests it with the function, among others, of assisting the
Federal Government in the planning, coordination and encouragement of
art and cultural activities and in the promotion, revival and development of
Nigerian culture.
With the National Council for Arts and Culture amendment Decree of
1987, which took effect from the 1st April 1987, the function of the Council
was further enlarged and clearly spelt out as follows:-
a. to promote and foster the appreciation, revival and development
of Nigerian arts and culture;
b. to plan and coordinate cultural activities in Nigeria and foster the
development of literary, visual and performing arts in Nigeria;
c. to assist the antiquities and commission established under
section 3 of the antiquities act in the creation, acquisition and
preservation of artistic works, culture, monuments and
d. to organize and promote exhibitions in visual, performing and
literary arts as may be determined from time to time by the
e. to coordinate inter-state cultural exchange activities;
f. to render assistance to the states in the field of arts and culture;
g. to promote the development of music, traditional dance, drama,
opera, cinema, films, photography, folklore, oral traditional
literature, poetry, painting, sculpture, architecture, town planning
and general arts, wood work, embroidery, weaving and similar
crafts. NCAC (Decree No 5).
The Decree No. 5 amends the National Council for Arts and Culture
Acts of 1975. Among other things, it was expected to reconstitute the
council and provide for the appointment of the Director and Secretary to
the council. The council also inherited the assets, and liabilities of the
defunct Nigerian Arts Council (section 14) of NCAC decree No3 of 1975)
which include programmes like the National festival of Arts and Culture
(NAFEST), National Art Collections, Crafts Shop and Art gallery.
Cultural Policy for Nigeria was launched by the then Military
Government in 1988 due to the increasing awareness and realization of
the role of culture in National Development. Cultural Policy covers all
spectrum of Nigeria’s cultural life including education, mass media,
architecture, industrialization, technology among others. The main
objectives of this policy are as follows:
i. to mobilize and motivate the people by disseminating and
propagating ideas which promote national pride, solidarity and
ii. to evolve from our plurality, a national culture, the stamp of which
will be reflected in African and World Affairs;
iii. to promote an educational system that motivates and stimulates
creativity and draws largely on our traditional values, namely;
respect for humanity and human dignity, respect for legitimate
authority and the dignity of labour and respect for positive
Nigerian moral and religious values;
iv. to promote creativity in the fields of arts, science and technology,
ensure the continuity of traditional skills and sports and their
progressive updating to serve modern development needs as our
contribution to world growth of culture and ideas;
v. to establish a code of behaviour compatible with our tradition of
humanism and a disciplined moral society.
vi. to sustain environmental and social conditions which enhance the
quality of life, produce responsible citizenship and ordered
vii. to enhance the management of national resources through the
transformation of the indigenous technology, design – resources
and skills and;
viii. to enhance national self-reliance and self – sufficiency, and
reflect our cultural heritage and national aspiration in the process
of industrialization (FGN, 1988).
The objectives of the National Cultural Policy are founded on the
existence of basic qualities in our cultural heritage which, if properly
harnessed, are bound to promote nationhood and their impact on world
civilization. Since the launching of this Policy in 1988, several workshops
were held by NCAC for the purpose of working out comprehensive
strategies for the implementation of this policy. The NCAC has been
placing great emphasis on the Annual Festival of Arts and Culture
(NAFEST) as a platform for promoting inter-state cultural exchange and
fostering national unity.
National development depends on the understanding of the culture,
the adaptation of its elements for its political, educational and economic
development and its strengths for social integration and development.
National development results from a combination of the political, economic
and social objectives of a nation whose motivation derives from culture.
National development is concerned with:
i. a political system that ensures even development, creates national
consciousness and pride, and promotes national discipline and
ii. an economic policy that promotes gainful employment for all and free
access to the economic well-being of the nation and establishes
measures to regulate the economy and promote the image of the
iii. social systems that improve the quality of life, establish firmly the
principles of human right, justice, security, law, and order and equal
opportunity for all; and
iv. an educational system that promotes our traditional value systems and
is designed to enhance national capabilities in self-reliance and selfsufficiency
(CPN, 1988).
1.2 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the contributions of National
Council for Arts and Culture (NCAC) to National Development. This has
become necessary because since its inception in 1975, the extent to which
the council has achieved its stated objectives has not been determined.
The decree establishing the NCAC has vested it with the function of
assisting the Federal Government in the planning, among other things,
coordinating and encouragement of arts and cultural activities in the
country. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution of
NCAC to national development.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Studies in the arts in Nigeria have shown that both have contributed
immensely to the socio-political, economic, religious, and educational
advancement to our communities and the nation at large. According to
Arinze (2001), arts and culture are rooted in our history, integrated into our
living patterns and inseparable from our spiritual philosophies. He
stressed that in recognition of their economic and cultural roles in National
development, the United Nations Education, Social and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) in 1982 passed a resolution urging membernations
to allocate adequate resources within their cultural programme and
National Development plans.
Babalola (1983) further emphasize the role art can play and its
contributions to the development of a nation like Nigeria. He believes in
the contribution of art in the education of children in the home, community,
commerce, industry and the vitality art can bring to different areas of
National Development.
In-spite of these contributions and roles of art and culture to the
individual and the nation at large, its role and contributions has not been
adequately understood or appreciated. Udoh (2003) notes that the
concept of art and culture has not been fully grasped by the Nigerian
populace. He noted that art and culture are often regarded as inferior and
do not deserve much attention. Also, Osofisan (1992) notes that cultural
matters are still considered by government as mere entertainment.
Based on the preceding discussion, it is evident that within the
limited researches on art and culture and the NCAC in particular, there are
various views on the problems of the cultural sector in the country. The
study therefore evaluated the NCAC’s contribution as a coordinating body
for cultural development in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised:
1. Are the set objectives of the NCAC adequate and relevant
to National Development?
2. Does the NCAC contribute to the development of the unity
of the country and prepare the nation for self-reliance and
3. Does the NCAC activity promote the activities of cultural
research centers, craft centers, and the inventories of
technology, cultural directories, festivals, traditional sports
and literature?
4. Does NCAC encourage viable industries such as food,
fashion, traditional medicine, traditional architecture and
entertainment industries?
1.5 Justification of the Study
A comparison of reports made by Olaosebikan (1982), in the arts
and cultural sector, reveals an increasing need for information by way of
statistics, inventories, evaluation, among others in order to assess and
monitor the achievements of the planned objectives of the sector.
According to Udoh (2003), there is currently virtually, no information by
way of comprehensive inventories of existing cultural assets in the country.
Similarly, Ajadi (2003) notes that no comprehensive national bibliography
of source materials and literary art works or statistical computation of the
nations annual turn-over of relevant sub-sectors at the three levels of
government (Federal State and Local government).From the preceding
discussion there is the need for a research documentation of the activities
of NCAC in the national development of the country
Since the inception of the National Council for Arts and Culture in
1975, various activities and programmes were executed by the council.
The researcher is not aware of research activities which focus on how the
arts contribute to our national development, be it in social cultural,
industrial, religious, political or educational sphere. Therefore, there is the
need to study the relevance of the stated objectives of the council and the
role of the arts in national development.
From the foregoing, it is the view of the researcher that there is the
need to investigate and document the contribution of the arts to National
Development using National Council for Arts and Culture as a case study.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study was based on the following assumptions:
1. The negative attitude of the individual and society as well as the
government has an adverse effect on the outcome of the
contribution of arts to national development.
2. The National Council for Arts and Culture (NCAC) has a role in
promoting arts contribution in national development
3. There is an absence of an in-depth documentation of arts
contribution in national development.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation
The purpose of this study was to assess and document the
contribution of the arts in national development a case study of National
Council for Arts and Culture. Therefore the study is limited to the Federal
National Council for Arts and Culture with Headquarters at Abuja and the
ten (10) Zonal Offices in the country. It will use only the relevant
The study was based on the available official information, files,
documents and data that the researcher will lay her hand on. It will also
be limited to the method used and this includes the use of questionnaire
and interviews guides in the collection of data.


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