Evaluation Of Serum Electrolytes (Sodium Na+, Potassium K, Chloride Cl, And Bicarbonate Hco-3) And C-Reactive Protein In Preeclampsia Patients – Complete project material


INTRODUCTION

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy specific syndrome and is one of the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia is defined as the existence of hypertension, proteinuria and edema, occurring after 20 weeks of gestation in previously normotensive women, (Sunithaet al.,2012)

The aetiology of preeclampsia is yet unknown, however, it is associated with alteration in electrolyte status in pregnant women (electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate etc). Hypertension is a universal problem and it complicates at least 10% of all pregnancies. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities are common in critically ill patients of which preeclampsia patients are not excluded,(Indumati et al.,2011). Hypertension or high blood pressure occurs when the blood flowing through the artery walls move faster and harder than needed. This excess pressure unnecessarily pounds the blood vessels and can cause them to get weak. However, when too much sodium is ingested, it can cause the body to retain more water and fluid than is necessary. This hoarding of excess fluid or water by the body and its continuous movement through the body causes blood pressure to increase inside the blood vessel walls,(Carretero and Oparil, 2015).

Electrolyte imbalances have been in the spotlight of medical focus for quite sometime and this has to do with the fact that electrolytes play paramount roles in acid base balance, muscle function as well as serving as co-factors for enzymes. Abnormal electrolyte concentrations may be the cause of, or consequence of a variety of medical disorders, (Burtis and Burns, 2015).

Electrolytes are charged low-molecular-mass molecules that are  present in plasma and cytosol; usually ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulfate and lactate,(Brutis and Bruns,2015).Electrolytes may be classified as anions, which are negatively charged ions that migrate towards the anode or as cations, which are positively charged ions that migrate towards the cathode, with the anode being the positive electrode and the cathode being the negative electrode, all in an electrochemical environment,(Indumati et al.,2011).

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