1.1 Background to the Study

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner. To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate instructional aids that best suit specific objectives and bring about outcomes (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011).

Until today, questions about the effectiveness of instructional aids on student learning process have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching techniques enhance success in students’ learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective instructional aids by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011).

The teacher initiates communication and influences students to think in a particular ways as guided by the instructional aids. However, whether the teacher authoritatively leads communication throughout the instructional process or whether the teacher takes up facilitation role is a matter of choice. The instructional aids used by teachers in sharing knowledge with students is considered as a factor capable of influencing students’ academic performance at all tiers of the education system (Tella, Indoshi, and Othuon, 2010).

Instructional aids are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to students in the educational process (Bradley, Mbarika, Sankar and Raju, 2005). Among these items are textbooks, charts, magazines, newspapers, audio-visual, pictures, recordings, slides, transparencies and many more. The use of instructional aids in secondary schools has been widely researched and the findings indicate that the benefits of using them are immense. The integration of instructional aids in classroom practice is believed to bolster the quality of instruction by fostering student-centred pedagogies (Abdo and Semela 2010). Furthermore, according to Mateer, Purdom, Ghent and Porter ( 2012) the use of relevant instructional media in the classroom is invaluable since it engages students, aids their retention of knowledge, motivates interest in the subject matter and helps to illustrate the relevance of many concepts taught and enhance students academic performance.

Instructional aids can be teacher-centered, learner-centered or mixed approach. Quite often, teachers prefer aids that make their work easier based on their beliefs, personal preferences and norms of their disciplines (Watson, 2003).

In this regard, some teachers believe that lessons should be teacher-centered, where the teacher is the expert and the authority in presenting information (Ahmad and Aziz, 2009). Nevertheless, teacher-centered aids are associated with inadequate stimulation of students’ innovative capacities, intellectual thinking, memorization, cramming of facts, poor knowledge retention and high dependency among students of business studies (McDowell, 2001; Tanner, 2009).

Although teachers have the discretion to choose methods for delivering lessons to their students, Chika (2012) observes that learner-centered pedagogy is a powerful strategy for improving learning achievement in business studies’ examinations and application of knowledge and skills acquired.

Business Studies is taught in the junior secondary school level as one of the basic subjects that will enable students acquire further skills which are common and fundamental to all personal and occupational activities (Inyang, 1998). Business activity affects the daily lives of all Nigerians as they work, spend, save, invest, travel and play. It influences jobs, incomes and opportunities for personal enterprise. Business has significant effect on the standard of living and quality of life of people, and on the environment in which they live and which future generations will inherit (Ekanem, 2008). Eventually, all students will encounter the world of business, whether they work in urban or rural areas. They must be prepared to engage in business activity with confidence and competence.

According to Ikerionwu in Sola (2010) instructional aids are objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects which provide sound, visual or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-obu, 2005). Instructional materials are in various classes, such as audio or aural, visual or audiovisual. Hence, this study seeks to examine the effect of instructional aids on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School Student in Business Studies.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

As noted by Odundo (2003), students of business studies who experience a mismatch between instructional aids used during teaching and their preferred styles often feel that their learning needs are being addressed using an unfamiliar language. The mismatch poses a difficulty for some students in internalizing the materials delivered, leading to lower grades. Similarly, Zeeb (2004) indicate that students whose styles are not matched with instructional methods that are chosen by teachers are less likely to develop interest in learning. In the absence of learner interest in a subject, concentration level drops and learning achievement is greatly impaired.

Business Studies like other subjects often record poor students’ performance both in national and international examination. Many factors contributed to the poor performance of students in examination (Okebukola and Jegede, 1997). These factors include:

ú The use of traditional method in teaching such as chalkboards, outdated textbooks etc.

ú Inability of the teachers to put across the concepts to the students

ú Lack of skills and competence required for teaching

ú Shortage of qualified introductory technology teachers

ú Lack of teaching materials and necessary equipment.

ú Lack of active participation of students in business studies

Another major problem faced by business studies students is inability to remember what has been learnt. This problem is often caused by too much theoretical expression by the teachers while learners are passive listeners. Students memorize and regurgitate facts and concepts. These problems confronting the teaching and learning of business studies can be handled using slide presentations, video presentation process and other interactive ICT software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment aimed at achieving certain instructional goals (Onasanya, 2002).

It is against this backdrop that this research seeks to examine the effect of instructional aids on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School Student in Business Studies with a special reference to Educational District V of Lagos State.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of instructional aids on junior secondary school students’ performance in Business Studies. Other specific objectives are:

i. To investigate if there is any significant relationship between audio as an instructional aid and students’ performance in business studies.

ii. To determine the effect of audio visual teaching aid on students academic outcomes.

iii. To find out if the use of ICT enhances students’ learning in business studies.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

Q1: Is there any significant relationship between audio as an instructional aid and student’s performance in Business Studies?

Q2: What is the impact of audio visual teaching aid on students academic outcomes?

Q3: Does ICT enhance students’ learning in Business Studies?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated and tested:

H01: There is no significant relationship between audio as an instructional aid and student’s performance in Business Studies.

H02: There is no significant relationship between audio visual teaching aids and students’ academic outcomes.

H03: There is no significant relationship between ICT and students’ learning in Business Studies

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