Detection Of Hepatitis C And Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Prison Inmates And Psychiatric Patients – Complete project material


There is high risk of contracting hepatitis B and C among individuals with psychotic disorders due to lifestyle factors and prisoners globally continue to demonstrate a higher prevalence of Hepatitis B and C than the general population. This study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV and HBV and to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV) among prison inmates and psychiatric patients in Kaduna Metropolis. A total of 276 (153 prison inmates and 123 psychiatric patients) serum samples were tested for anti-HCV and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using third generation Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and RDT method respectively. Hepatitis C virus genome was detected in ten (10) serum samples using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An overall anti-HCV IgM prevalence of 10.14% (28/276), anti- HCV IgG prevalence of 8.69% (24/276) and HBsAg prevalence of 6.15% (17/276) was established. A 0.36% (1/276) HCV/HBV co-infection rate was obtained. Among the inmates, an anti-HCV IgM and IgG prevalence of 10.45% (16/153) and 8.5% (13/153) respectively was obtained with a 9.2% (14/153) HBsAg prevalence. An HBsAg, anti-HCV IgM and anti-HCV IgG prevalence of 2.4% (3/123), 9.75% (12/123) and 8.9% (11/123) respectively was obtained among the psychiatric patients. The highest HCV antibody prevalence was obtained among the female subjects (14.1% for IgM and 8.4% for IgG). No female tested positive for HBsAg. Subjects aged ≥48 years had the highest HCV prevalence (28.9%: 13/45 for IgM and 31.1%: 14/45 for IgG) while those within age group 28-32 years had the highest HBsAg prevalence (11.7%: 7/60). Age was observed to be associated with HCV infection (p=0.00). Viremia was evaluated by amplifying conserved untranslated region of HCV genome and bands of 244bp were observed. There was no statistically significant association between the viral infections and demographics. Presence of tattoo/scarification and alcohol intake were statistically associated with HCV infection while clothes sharing was associated with HBsAg among the inmates. Hepatitis C virus infection was statistically associated with blood transfusion, alcohol intake, presence of tattoo/scarification, sexual experience and shaving equipment sharing among the psychiatric patients while HBsAg was associated with only clothes sharing. This study established the circulation of HBV and HCV among inmates and psychiatric patients in Kaduna State. These individuals should therefore be screened for these viruses for appropriate clinical management and effective prevention.


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small enveloped virus measuring 55-65nm in size. It is a positive sense single stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Hepacivirus (Kapoor et al., 2011). It is the causative agent of human hepatitis C infection, although it has been found to infect chimpanzees, dogs, horses, and rodents (Rogo, 2011; Burbelo et al., 2012; Kapoor et al., 2013; Quan et al., 2013). Hepatitis C virus particle is made up of an RNA core of genetic material, surrounded by an icosahedral protective protein. This is further encased in a lipid envelope derived from the host. The viral glycoproteins, E1 and E2 are embedded in the lipid envelope (De-Beeck et al., 2003; Igwe et al., 2010). Hepatitis C virus encodes a single polyprotein of 3010-3011 amino acids which is processed into structural and non-structural proteins (NS). This is made possible with the aid of cell signalases and viral proteases.

Hepatitis C genome consists of a single open reading frame (ORF) that is made up of 9600 nucleotide base long (Kato, 2000). The ORF possess highly conserved nontranslated regions (NTR) in its 5′ and 3′ ends. In the 5′ end, there is an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) which allows the RNA to bind to the ribosomes close to the codon to start codon of the ORF. Based on genetic differences between HCV isolates, the virus is classified into seven genotypes (1-7) (Nakano, 2011). These subtypes are further broken into quasi species based on genetic diversity (Christian, 1996) and high error rate on the part of the virus RNA dependent RNA polymerase. The entry of the virus into the host is as a result of complex interaction between virions and cell surface molecules (Zeisel et al., 2009 Kohaar et al., 2010). The structure and replication of HCV is poorly known due to lack of efficient cell culture system, difficulty to grow or develop in cell culture as well as striking heterogenicity in density (Kawo et al., 2012). The virus replicates mainly in the hepatocytes of the liver, where it is estimated that daily each infected cell produces approximately fifty (50) virions with a calculated total of one trillion virions generated (Bartenschlager and Lohmann, 2000).


Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 8111770269, 08111770269 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected]


Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research. You are allowed to use the original PDF Research Material Guide you will receive in the following ways: 1. As a source for additional understanding of the project topic. 2. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced). 3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your school definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase). 4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly). Thank you so much for your respect for the authors copyright. Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 8111770269, 08111770269 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected]

Purchase Detail

Hello, we’re glad you stopped by, you can download the complete project materials to this project with Abstract, Chapters 1 – 5, References and Appendix (Questionaire, Charts, etc) for N4000 ($15) only, To pay with Paypal, Bitcoin or Ethereum; please click here to chat us up via Whatsapp.
You can also call 08111770269 or +2348059541956 to place an order or use the whatsapp button below to chat us up.
Bank details are stated below.

Bank: UBA
Account No: 1021412898
Account Name: Starnet Innovations Limited

The Blazingprojects Mobile App

Download and install the Blazingprojects Mobile App from Google Play to enjoy over 50,000 project topics and materials from 73 departments, completely offline (no internet needed) with the project topics updated Monthly, click here to install.

0/5 (0 Reviews)
Read Previous

The Assessment Of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Internally Displaced Persons – Complete project material

Read Next


Translate »