ASSESMENT OF NIGERIA-USA RELATIONS 1999-2013 – – Complete Project Material

Project Description

Notwithstanding Nigeria’s claims of adhering to the non-alignment policy, her continued focus on the West can hardly be removed under the carpet. From her independence in 1960, the country’s policies have been in favour of the countries of the Western Hemisphere. In fact, the notion among African scholars is that Nigeria’s non alignment policy is only in theory, but not in practice. This study has chosen to consider Nigeria’s relations with the United States of America, from 1999 to 2013. In all, the focus is on the U.S-Nigeria relations between these two periods. The facts for this research are gathered from secondary sources. These include material from textbooks, newspapers, magazines, journal articles and internet sources.

1.1 Background to the Study
The Nigeria-United States relations are bilateral relations between Nigeria and the United States. The United States established close relations with Nigeria in 1960 when she got her independence from the British. Although the Nigeria-USA relationship has been strained due to various military coups in the Second Republic from 1979-1983.The history of Nigeria‟s foreign policy towards United States since 1960 has constantly been changing, though the principles guiding her foreign relations remain the same. Strategic event are largely responsible for the unstable external relationship between the two countries. Since Nigeria‟s foreign policy is deeply rooted in Africa with emphasis on political and economic cooperation, peaceful dispute resolution, and global nonalignment, Nigerian leaders also have their attention fixed on the successful implementation of these principles which sometimes come in conflict with the US foreign goals.
At independence Nigeria began to conduct foreign relations under the political leadership of her prime minister, the late Alhaji (Sir) Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. His administration emphasized Africa to be centre-piece of Nigeria‟s foreign policy. His own foreign relation was pro-Western particular with Britain, Nigeria‟s erstwhile colonial master. With the bloody military coup of January 15, 1966, the late Major-General J.T. Aguisi Ironsi came to power only to be killed in a counter coup staged six months later. This development brought the retired General Yakubu Gowon to power (Abegunrin, 2001: 12-20). Although General Yakubu Gowon‟s adopted a pro-western approach In Nigeria‟s foreign relations. He entered into agreements with Britain, United

States and other European Countries. A bloodless military coup lead to the hijacking of the General Yakubu Gowon‟s government and this lead to the emergence of late General Murtala Ramat Mohammed and the retired General (now Chief) Olusegun Obasanjo who was his second in command and Chief of Staff Supreme Headquarters. This regime innovated new ideas and dynamism In the country‟s foreign affairs. The regime prepared to counter the imperial moves of the western powers especially the United States who had emerged as a major power broker in Africa particularly in Angola (Robert, 1991: 57). This was also the era of the cold war where the USA and the Soviet Union were competing for military supremacy and searching for satellite countries who would support them in their bid to permanently polarize the world into Capitalist and Communist Blocs under the US and Soviet Union respectively (Robert, 1991: 67). The MuhammedObasanjo regime pursued confrontational diplomatic in its resolve to emancipate African countries that were still under the tyranny of colonial masters. The government also had conflict with the US in its bid to eradicate neo-colonialism, racism and apartheid on the African continent particularly colonies in Southern Africa (Davies, 1978: 15).
With all these involvements in international politics, Nigeria became a regional power and centre of influence, particularly in Africa, making her to adopt confrontational foreign policy posture towards the US. This combined with a viable economy until the mid-1980s; Nigeria was a toast of many states seeking either its influence or support on global issues or financial assistance (Ate, 1987: 93). However, after the June 12, 1993, Nigerian presidential election was annulled, and in light of human rights abuses and the failure to embark on a meaningful democratic transition, the United States imposed numerous sanctions on Nigeria. These sanctions included the imposition of Section 212 of the Immigration and Nationality Act to refuse entry into the United States of senior government officials and others who formulated, implemented, or.///

Over the years there have been various views from the public on the impact of the United State of America in Nigeria. Is their motive just to exploit our natural resources and give us peanut, this has been from various scholars and Nigerian citizens? The relationship between these two countries has been up and down. Bilateral relations between Nigeria and the US from 1999 to 2012 had a dual character: acrimony and friendship. From 1999 to 2003, there was a friendly relationship between the two countries, ; between 2003 and 2004 it degenerated into a full scale diplomatic tussle where Nigeria regarded the action of the US government on Iraq invasion as inappropriate; between 2005 and 2009, diplomatic relations was cordial with the increase in economic activities; between 2009 and 2010, their relations was sour as a result of Nigeria‟s inclusion on the terror list by the US government; and between 2011 and 2012, their relations became stable and entered a new phase of strategic partnerships in the fight against terrorism. The steps taken by these two countries to stabilize their relations during these periods call for careful study.
1. What are the patterns of the Nigeria-USA relations since 1999?
2. How does domestic and global terrorism affect Nigeria-USA relations?
3. What role has democracy played in the Nigeria-USA relations since 1999?
4. Are there any impacts of the United States of America on Nigeria since 1999?

The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between Nigeria and USA from 1999-2013. Also since the USA is the largest trading partner and largest foreign investor In Nigeria, this research is carried out to know whether Nigeria has benefitted in its relations with the USA. Not only in the economy sector but in the cultural, military and other sectors of the country, since USA is unarguably a big power state in the international system.. This is further aimed at empirically evaluating whether the US initiative in the name of African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) as well as US African Command (AFRICOM) had any impact on the development of Nigeria. Therefore, the specific objectives of the study are;
1. To discover the patterns of the Nigeria-USA relations since 1999.
2. To investigate the effect of global terrorism Nigeria-USA relations.
3. To examine the role which democracy has played in the Nigeria-USA relations since 1999.
4. To do an assessment of the Nigeria-USA relations since 1999.
1.5.1 SCOPE
This study covers Nigeria‟s foreign relations with the United States of America from 1999 to 2013. The study examines the bilateral relations between the two countries particularly the economic, cultural and political and military relations from 1999 to 2012. Other areas which this study covers include how the interplay of domestic factors shaped the relationship between Nigeria and the United States of America.


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